Wednesday, June 05, 2013

Setpiece scenes: the unlimited production budget

I’m headed off to teach a Screenwriting Tricks workshop in Texas next week, and I'm going to be posting some prep work for my class, so you guys get the benefit of it, if you want to play along!

One of the things I always hope people get out of my workshops and writing workbooks is the concept of setpiece scenes. I try to hit that hard up front in a workshop, and keep going back to examples during the day.

There’s a saying in Hollywood that “If you have six great scenes, you have a movie.” And I’ve said before that these six great scenes are usually from that list I’ve given you of the Key Story Elements.
It makes sense, doesn’t it? Scenes like The Call To Adventure and Crossing the Threshold (and on the darker side, the Visit to Death or All is Lost scene) are magical moments: they change the world of the main character for all time, and as storytellers we want our readers or audiences to experience that profound, soul-shattering change right along with the character.

Filmmakers take that “six great scenes” concept very literally.  These scenes are often called the “trailer scenes” or the “money scenes”  (as opposed to “money shots”, which is a different post, with a different rating!).  As incensed as I am personally about how trailers these days give every single bit of the movie away (I won’t even watch them before a movie I’m interested in seeing), I understand that this is essential movie advertising: those trailer scenes have to seduce the potential audience by giving a good sense of the EXPERIENCE the movie is promising to deliver.  The scenes that everyone goes into the theater to see, and that everyone comes out of the theater talking about, which creates first the anticipation for a movie and then that essential “work of mouth” that will make or break a film.

And do not for a second think that directors aren’t putting excruciating thought and time and detail into designing and staging those scenes.  There’s not a director out there who is not in the back of his (or her, but statistically mostly his) mind hoping to make cinematic history (or at least the Top 100 AFI Scenes of All Time list in whatever genre) with those scenes. These are scenes that often cost so much money that producers will not under any circumstances allow them to be cut, even if in editing they are clearly non-essential to the plot.

The attention paid to these critical scenes is not all an ego thing, either. We are not doing our JOB as storytellers if we are not delivering the core experiences of our genre. Genre is a PROMISE to the audience or readers; it’s a pact.

And a setpiece doesn’t have to cost millions or tens of millions of dollars, either, although as authors, we have the incredible advantage of an unlimited production budget. Did you authors all get that?  We have an UNLIMITED PRODUCTION BUDGET. Whatever settings, crowds, mechanical devices, alien attacks or natural disasters we choose to depict, our only budget constraint is in our imaginations.  The most powerful directors in Hollywood would KILL for a fraction of our power. Theoretically, they can’t even begin to compete.

However, directors can and do compete and top most authors on a regular basis because they know how to manipulate visuals, sound, symbolism, theme and emotion to create the profound and layered impact that a setpiece scene is.

So how do we take back that power? By constantly identifying the setpiece scenes in film and on the page that have the greatest impact on us personally and really looking at what the storytellers are doing to create that effect and emotion, so we can create the same depth on the page.

I’ve compiled some examples (and categorized them by story elements they depict) here and in my second Screenwriting Tricks workbook.

But just in the last week I’ve come across some great examples that have really stayed with me.

I’m on an Edith Wharton tear at the moment, and it’s striking how beautifully she sets her love scenes, on every visual and sensual level, like this setup from THE HOUSE OF MIRTH:

Selden had given her his arm without speaking. She took it in silence, and they moved away, not toward the supper-room, but against the tide which was setting thither. The faces about her flowed by like the streaming images of sleep: she hardly noticed where Selden was leading her, till they passed through a glass doorway at the end of the long suite of rooms and stood suddenly in the fragrant hush of a garden. Gravel grated beneath their feet, and about them was the transparent dimness of a midsummer night. Hanging lights made emerald caverns in the depths of foliage, and whitened the spray of a fountain falling among lilies. The magic place was deserted: there was no sound but the splash of the water on the lily-pads, and a distant drift of music that might have been blown across a sleeping lake. 

Selden and Lily stood still, accepting the unreality of the scene as a part of their own dream-like sensations. It would not have surprised them to feel a summer breeze on their faces, or to see the lights among the boughs reduplicated in the arch of a starry sky. The strange solitude about them was no stranger than the sweetness of being alone in it together. At length Lily withdrew her hand, and moved away a step, so that her white-robed slimness was outlined against the dusk of the branches. Selden followed her, and still without speaking they seated themselves on a bench beside the fountain.

On a different note, in the romantic comedy FORGETTING SARAH MARSHALL (a younger audience would call it a “lude comedy”, and I don’t disagree!), the hapless hero has his first kiss with the love interest at the Midpoint, of course, a classic “sex at sixty” scene (sixty minutes, that is, halfway through the film.).  Every kiss in a romance or romantic comedy is, or should be, a setpiece and the filmmakers give the lovers a typically gorgeous romance setting, in this case a cliff overlooking the ocean in Hawaii. But being as this is a comedy, the reckless heroine tells the hero, quite rightly, that they’re both in ruts and need to take a leap of faith, which she promptly does, off the cliff.  The hero doesn’t land quite so well, but after narrowly escaping death and possible castration on his slide down, he ends up in the water with her, for a beautiful backdrop to a sensual first kiss that is also a baptism that the hero has been sorely needing.

On the nose? Yes, but well-played and effective, and it does what the Midpoint is supposed to do – it kicks the second half of act two up to another level.

In the film of MEMOIRS OF A GEISHA, over and over the filmmakers use images of bridges and interesting corridors, or stepping stones in a creek, to underscore significant moments. The heroine first meets her love interest, The Chairman, on a bridge over a stream, with cherry blossoms in the background. Now, those of you with jaded eyes might look at that and think, ‘Oh, right, another “lovers meet on a Japanese bridge in an explosion of cherry blossoms’ scene, but the setting is utterly gorgeous, and I would be very surprised if most of the moviegoing audience even notices the bridge or the cherry blossoms – except subliminally, which is how these things are supposed to register.

And in a subsequent scene, the nine-year-old heroine has just realized what the desire of her life is to be, and runs through a long, curving passageway, another classic symbol of transition and birth, but the scene is filmed as an endless following shot in the psychedelically orange gateways of the Fushimi Inari shrine (just click through and look!), and truly delivers on the sensation of transformation that the moment is.

Now, filmmakers have location scouts to find these perfect physical settings for them, but I think it’s one of the great joys of my job as an author (as it was when I was a screenwriter) to be constantly on the lookout for perfect locations to use in current and yet-to-be-conceived storylines.  And they're all ours for the taking.

So you know the question.  What are some of your favorite setpieces and locations in films or books?  Come across any good ones lately?  Or – what is a location you’ve always thought would make a great setpiece scene in a film or book?



All the information on this blog and more, including full story structure breakdowns of various movies, is available in my Screenwriting Tricks for Authors workbooks.  Any format, just $3.99 and $2.99.

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If you're a romance writer, or have a strong love plot or subplot in your novel or script, then Writing Love: Screenwriting Tricks II is an expanded version of the first workbook with a special emphasis on love stories.

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Ellen said...

Fabulous post!

I am currently flipping back and forth between playwriting (which I've been doing for a while) and writing fiction (have rarely done). When I first sat down to plot out a novel a few months ago, I kept having conversations with myself like this:
A: You're really bringing [a food truck, library, or new character] onstage for TWO MINUTES? YOU CAN'T DO THAT!
B: Watch me.
It was so freeing! But at the same time, I love the challenges of the stage--fascinating to work with such a limited set of possibilities.

Will think about favorite set pieces. Have to read more Wharton, too. Have only read The Buccaneers (which I loved).

Paul Anthony Shortt said...

Wow, I love this post.

I'm extremely visual as a writer. When I'm not working on a scene I'm usually imagining how it would look and sound if it were a movie, and I strive to put across that sense of immediacy and awe that you feel when witnessing a breathtaking movie scene.

I think writers can learn a lot from filmmakers. They're used to dealing with subtlety and finding ways to show, rather than tell, the audience the story. And because they're always under pressure to hit certain points in story structure, their work can give us valuable guidelines for keeping our work relevant in an ever-changing market.

Alexandra Sokoloff said...

LOL!! I know. I still have producers' voices in my head saying, "Cut that, too expensive."


You would love House of Mirth and Age of Innocence. I especially love House of Mirth.

Yves Fey said...

Love House of Mirth...
Some favorite movie scenes - The English Patient, flying over the sands that look like all the bodies of all dead lovers of the world. And flying with the candle in the church.
The love scene from Phaedra, best sex in front of a fire ever.
The pantomime in Children of Paradise.

Books - Phillipa falling in love with Lymond after the rooftop chase in Dunnett's Checkmate. And being spurned. Magical and devasting.
The entrance into Lothlorien in The Lord of the Rings.

Alexandra Sokoloff said...

Yves. some great ones!!! I haven't seen Phaedra, now you've got me very curious...

Alexandra Sokoloff said...

Paul, thanks! Yes, I think there are all kinds of effective ways to write, but putting a movie inside a reader's head if definitely up there toward the top. It works for me.

John Mellies said...

Been thinking about horror set pieces. The underwater ballroom scene from Inferno sticks in my mind. Also, and it's not really horror, but the scene from The Burbs where Hanks and his friends decide to break into the Klopek's house, and Corey Feldman and his friends are watching the whole show from their front porch. Funniest scene in the movie.

I just plotted out my next novel using the 8-sequences for the first time. It's awesome - I wish your workshop was closer. If you're ever teaching one in LA/OC I'd love to take it.

Alexandra Sokoloff said...

Hey John - I have't seen either of those. But an underwater ballroom scene - you just sold me on Inferno.

Yay, I'm so glad to hear the sequence method worked for you! I'm teaching a workshop for the California Crime Writers Conference in Pasadena in June, but it's just a 2 hour one and I think it's sold out.

Mary Jo Burke said...

Not sure if this is an example. The end of Tootsie, when Dustin Hoffman is on the set of the soap explaining he's a man. For an even bigger laugh, the camera cuts to Bill Murray watching the show on television from his living room. He declares the show the best ever.

Alexandra Sokoloff said...

Mary Jo, that is one of my FAVORITE setpiece scenes of all time. It does everything a setpiece is supposed to - it's wildly comic (genre-specific), it's a huge reveal, it brings in a whole crowd of characters and pays off a huge lot of subplot scenes and t's as climactic as a setpiece comes.

They don't have to be car chases or explosions. In a comedy, we need GREAT COMIC DIALOGUE.

Yves Fey said...

I love Tootsie, too. Your description of how it works reminded me of the end of The Usual Suspects. For me it worked just as it should have, seeing it all come together just as the detective does - but delighting in it even as I'm chilled.
Nicholas Roeg's Performance (still ahead of its time 40 years later) - the Turner/Mick Jagger musical setpiece reveal while Chas/James Fox is stoned out of his mind and is shown the innards of his homoerotic bruiser mindset.
Phaedra is over the top romantic (in the die for love tradition). It's really a great modern twist on the myth. Melina Mercouri was sort of the Greek Helen Mirren of her era, total powerhouse, sexy as hell.